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What Is an Ethernet Cable? Everything You Need to Know

What Is an Ethernet Cable? Everything You Need to Know

When setting up a home network or connecting to the internet without wireless signals flickering through the air, you might need Ethernet cables. These simple but essential cables are crucial for our internet connections, but they are often overlooked as they discreetly run behind desks and along walls. In this article, we'll explore what is an Ethernet cable, explain how they transmit our data so quickly, discuss the different types available for various needs, emphasize their advantages over wireless connections, and offer advice on choosing the right cable to make your internet experience fast and reliable.

What Are Ethernet Cables?

Ethernet cables are network cables used to connect devices like computers, routers, and switches within a local area network (LAN). What does an Ethernet cable look like? They are characterized by their RJ45 connectors and typically have four twisted pairs of wires inside. Ethernet cables follow standardized specifications governed by the IEEE to ensure compatibility and performance. They come in various categories that support different speed and bandwidth capacities, allowing for physical cabled connections that can exceed the performance of wireless networks.

How Do Ethernet Cables Work?

What does an Ethernet cable do? Ethernet cables function by transmitting data through twisted pairs of copper wires inside the cable, which help reduce electromagnetic interference and maintain signal integrity over distances. The cables are designed to plug into Ethernet ports found on network devices, facilitating the exchange of data by a method of electrical signaling that adheres to the Ethernet communication standards. This direct physical connection offers a more stable and secure communication channel, with speeds varying depending on the cable category and is often preferred for bandwidth-intensive or critical network applications.

What Are the Different Types of Ethernet Cables?

Ethernet cables are specifically used to connect devices on local area networks like computers, routers, and switches. Here's a quick guide for the various Ethernet cable types:

Solid Or Stranded

  • Solid cables utilize a single piece of copper for the electrical conductor and are generally employed for permanent wiring within a building due to their inflexibility and superior performance for longer distances.
  • Stranded cables are composed of multiple strands of copper wires twisted together. These are more flexible and are often used for patch cables, which are short cables that connect devices to outlets or to other devices.

Straight Through Or Cross Over

  • Straight-throughcables are utilized to connect different types of devices to each other, for example, a computer to a switch and/or a router to a modem. In this type of cable, the arrangement of wires is the same at both ends.
  • Cross Overcables are commonly used to connect similar devices to each other, like a switch to another switch. The wiring of the cables crosses over, so that the output from one computer goes into the input of another and vice versa.

Ethernet Cable Categories (Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a, Cat7, and Cat8)

  • Cat5 –Category 5 cables support speeds up to 100 Mbps and have a decent maximum length of 100 meters. They're now considered obsolete due to their lower speed capacities.
  • Cat5e –Category 5 enhanced cables are an advancement over Cat5, supporting speeds up to 1 Gbps. They're also designed to reduce crosstalk—signal transfer between cables.
  • Cat6 –Category 6 cables provide performance of up to 1 Gbps for max lengths up to 100 meters, and they can support 10 Gbps for shorter runs (typically up to 55 meters). They have further improvements to reduce crosstalk.
  • Cat6a –Category 6a cables support the same 10 Gbps speed as Cat6, but across a full length of up to 100 meters. They have improved shielding to prevent crosstalk and are more suitable for industrial environments.
  • Cat7 –Category 7 cables are designed for use in high-speed networks with a capability of up to 10 Gbps over 100 meters. Cat7 features very extensive shielding to greatly reduce crosstalk and uses a modified GigaGate45 connector, which is backward compatible with RJ45 Ethernet ports.
  • Cat8 –The latest and most advanced, Category 8 supports bandwidths of up to 2000 MHz and speeds of up to 25 Gbps or 40 Gbps up to a distance of whooping 30 meters. They are the perfect ones for data centers and server rooms where equipment is closely packed.

What Are the Benefits of Using Ethernet Cables?

Here are some of the useful benefits of using Ethernet cables:

  1. Stable Connection:Ethernet cables provide a direct and secure way of connecting to the internet, bypassing many of the common issues found with wireless networking, such as signal interference and dropped connections. This direct line to the network ensures a consistently stable connection, crucial for activities requiring a reliable link, such as video conferencing, streaming, or competitive online gaming.
  1. Higher Speeds:Compared to Wi-Fi, Ethernet cables offer significantly higher data transfer speeds. This is particularly beneficial in environments demanding high bandwidth, like transferring large files, HD video streaming, or running high-speed gaming.
  1. Lower Latency:Ethernet connections exhibit lower latency than wireless ones, meaning data packets are sent and received more quickly. This is extremely beneficial for real-time applications like online gaming or VoIP services, where delay or lag can detrimentally affect the user experience.
  1. Enhanced Security:A direct connection through an Ethernet cable is inherently more secure than a wireless connection. It is more difficult for unauthorized users to intercept your data traffic on a wired connection, offering a layer of security that is particularly important in sensitive environments or when transmitting confidential information.
  1. Ease of Installation:Though it may seem counterintuitive, setting up an Ethernet network can be simpler and more straightforward than configuring a wireless network. Ethernet cables are simply plugged in directly from the device to the router or switch, without the need to navigate through wireless network names, passwords, and various encryption standards.

How to Choose the Right Ethernet Cable for Your Needs?

Choosing the right Ethernet cable requires understanding a few key factors about network requirements and the environment where the cable will be used. Here are some handy tips to help you select the best Ethernet cable:

  1. Understand Different Categories:Ethernet cables come in various categories, such as Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a, and Cat8. Each category supports different bandwidths and speeds. For general home use, Cat5e or Cat6 cables are sufficient, providing speeds up to 1 Gbps. For more bandwidth-intensive environments, like data centers, Cat6a or Cat8 cables might be more appropriate, supporting speeds up to 10 Gbps or higher.
  1. Length Requirements:The length of the cable can impact the quality of the connection. It is essential to choose a cable that is long enough to reach between your devices without being excessively long, as the signal can degrade over long distances. Measure the needed length before purchasing, and remember that Ethernet cables should ideally not exceed 100 meters to maintain optimal performance.
  1. Shielding Needs:Ethernet cables come with different shielding options, such as UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) and STP (Shielded Twisted Pair). In environments with so much electromagnetic interference, like near heavy machinery or numerous wireless signals, a shielded cable (STP) can provide a cleaner signal by protecting against interference.
  1. Quality and Certification:Ensure the cable has the necessary certification for its category. Premium quality cables are built to adhere to the specific standards (e.g., Cat6, Cat6a) and are more likely to deliver the speeds and reliability they promise. Look for trusted vendors and check for reviews when possible to ensure you're getting a quality product.
  1. Flexibility and Durability: Consider the environment where the cable will be used. If you need to route cables around corners or in tight spaces, look for ones that are flexible and have protective jackets that prevent kinks and breaks. Outdoor installations require cables that are rated for outdoor use, with UV-resistant jackets and waterproofing.

Looking to leverage the advantages of an Ethernet cable by converting your USB-A port into an Ethernet connection? Anker has the perfect solution for you!

The Anker PowerExpand USB 3.0 to Gigabit Ethernet Adapter is Designed for the tech-savvy individual. This compact, sleek device ensures you're always connected, transforming your USB-A port into a high-performance Ethernet connection. Its durable, premium build complements your sophisticated gadgets, while the promise of Anker's leading technology offers reliability. Perfect for MacBook users and beyond, enjoy instant, stable internet access and Anker's commendable customer support, all in a portable format that mirrors modern elegance and efficiency.


In conclusion, the Ethernet cable is indeed the foundation of modern networking due to its advantages in speed, reliability, and security. From the outdated Cat5 to the advanced Cat8, these cables cater to varying networking demands, offering tailored solutions for both home users and enterprise environments. Armed with all this knowledge, individuals can confidently make informed decisions, ensuring robust and reliable digital communication setups. 


Here are some commonly asked questions about what is an Ethernet cable. 

What is an Ethernet cable used for?

An Ethernet cable is highly used for connecting devices within a local area network (LAN) like computers, routers, and switches. It facilitates the transmission of data through wired connections, offering more stability and faster speeds than wireless connections.

Do I need an Ethernet cable for Wi-Fi?

No, you do not need an Ethernet cable for Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi already allows devices to connect to the internet wirelessly through a wireless adapter that communicates with a wireless router. An Ethernet cable is used for wired connections, which is an alternative way to connect devices to the Internet.

Can I plug Ethernet directly into a router?

Yes, you can plug an Ethernet cable directly into a router. This is a common method for establishing a wired internet connection, which can greatly provide a more reliable and faster connection compared to wireless (Wi-Fi) connections. Simply plug one end of the Ethernet cable into the router and the other end into the device you wish to connect.

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